Many people picture themselves getting rich in crazy ways.
I used to dream of finding some undervalued stock and becoming a millionaire!
I quickly found out though, that if I wanted to actually become a millionaire, I needed to start by saving in my retirement accounts.
Yes, it’s the boring approach to getting rich but it’s the smarter approach since retirement accounts come with tax savings.
When you become a millionaire the boring way, you’re still a millionaire.
I’ve put together a list of the 7 accounts that I set up to save money, exactly what they are and how you can open them too.
I’ll start with retirement accounts, then go into the regular taxable accounts, then end with other accounts that I’m contributing to that many people don’t know about (HSA, ESPP).
It was by investing in the accounts below that I saved $26,000 in seven months.
My goal is to hit $1M before I’m 30.
My eyes used to glaze over when I was reading about IRAs and 401(k)s but trust me, it’s all good life stuff to know.
This guy became a millionaire in 10 years by saving in these accounts.
If you actually want to become a millionaire, keep reading.
Step 1 – Max out Retirement Accounts
401k and IRA
What is a 401(k)?
A 401(k) is a type of retirement plan typically offered by your employer through a financial services company.
You and your employer can contribute a maximum of $53,000 per year to your 401(k).
The $53,000 consists of:
$18,000 of your own money +
your employer’s contribution +
any after-tax money you wish to contribute (if your plan allows).
= up to $53,000 total
How do I contribute to a 401(k)?
You can sign up through your HR department (or you can open one yourself through a financial services company if you are self-employed).
You then select how much you want to contribute per paycheck. This selection is typically made online.
How much should I contribute to a 401(k)?
I max out my 401(k) every year, meaning I contribute $18,000 before-tax dollars.
I’m not a financial advisor, but I recommend putting as much money into your 401(k) as you can.
Your $18k of contributions are taken directly out of your paycheck before taxes are taken out.
What this means: The more money you save in your 401(k), the less taxes that come out of your paycheck. Win!
Plus, that money compounds over time which means that your money will grow much faster than if you put it in a savings account.
If you can’t contribute the full $18,000, at least contribute up to the employer match.
If your employer is offering to match your contributions up to a certain amount, you don’t want to leave money on the table!
How can I max out my 401(k)?
Take $18,000 and divide by your salary. That is the % you need to contribute each paycheck to max out your 401(k) for the year.
I challenge you to give that percentage a try for just ONE paycheck. See how it feels.
You’ll be surprised that your paycheck is bigger than you imagine because less money is taken out for taxes.
I bet you’ve splurged on big expenses before. Splurge on yourself for one paycheck.
I started maxing out my 401(k) last year and this year I added an additional 10% so I could contribute after-tax dollars too.
Can I contribute after-tax dollars to my 401(k)?
Some plans allow you to contribute after-tax dollars to your 401(k).
Only contribute after-tax dollars if you have already contributed the maximum $18,000 before-tax dollars and are also contributing to the other accounts I list below.
You can make after-tax contributions directly from your paycheck too (if your plan allows them).
The pre-tax and after-tax dollars are kept in two separate accounts in your 401(k) which makes the after-tax money easy to rollover into an IRA.
I contribute after-tax dollars to my 401k so that I can do the mega backdoor roth strategy. This strategy is pretty advanced but check out this great article on the Mega Backdoor Roth if you’re interested.
What this means: If you want to contribute more than $18k to your 401(k), you can!
What is an IRA?
IRA stands for individual retirement account. This is an account that you open on your own with the money in your bank account.
I honestly had no idea what IRAs were until I started learning about personal finance.
Do not fret, IRAs are just another type of account that you can open that offers you tax benefits + retirement savings.
What is the difference between a Traditional IRA and Roth IRA?
There are two main types – Traditional IRA and Roth IRA.
You can contribute to a Traditional IRA and deduct your contributions (given you’re not over the IRS income limit).
What this means: Lower your taxes at year-end! Woot woot!
Or you could contribute to a Roth IRA which is an after-tax account, meaning you can’t deduct your contributions.
Your money grows tax free when it’s in a Roth IRA though which is really nice.
I recommend putting $5,500 in a Traditional IRA if you are still under the income limit to deduct your contributions.
How much can I contribute to an IRA?
You can contribute up to $5,500 total per year to an IRA says the IRS.
(You can technically contribute more to an IRA through the Mega Backdoor Roth strategy. For those interested, check out this post from the Mad Fientist).
How do I open an IRA?
Opening an IRA is a no-brainer for most people and something you should consider on top of your 401(k).
If you want to open an IRA, consider opening one with Vanguard or Betterment.
I recommend opening an IRA with Vanguard if you don’t mind doing a bit of paperwork and want the cheapest expense ratios out there.
On the other hand, I recommend opening an IRA with Betterment if you want to open the account 10 minutes from now, don’t have much money to contribute, and still want some of the cheapest expense ratios out there but not as cheap as Vanguard.
Betterment has no minimum balance so you could put just $20 into a Betterment account to get going. Over time, that money will add up.
If you’re interested in opening an account with Betterment, here is my link to a special offer.
Step 2 – Open a brokerage account
AKA Regular Taxable Account
What is a brokerage account?
It sounds fancy but this is just another investment account that you set up yourself with money from your bank account.
Unlike traditional IRAs, all of your contributions to a brokerage account are with money that you have already paid taxes on.
You can withdraw the money and earnings much easier than IRAs and 401(k)s.
How can I open a brokerage account?
I recently set up a brokerage account (AKA regular taxable account) and started contributing small amounts of money per paycheck.
I recommend Betterment, which is a robo-advisor. This means that investment decisions are made for you based on an algorithm that considers your age, retirement goals, etc.
The fees are low and you don’t have to know much about investments to use it.
Betterment also has no minimum balance so you could put just $20 into a Betterment account to get going. Over time, that money will add up.
If you’re interested in opening an account with Betterment, here is my link to a special offer.
You can also open an account with a financial services company like Vanguard or Fidelity and choose your stocks from their platform.
How can I buy stocks?
If you’re not into robo-advisors and want to choose your own stocks, I recommend the following companies.
You can also open an account with a financial services company like Vanguard or Fidelity and choose your stocks there.
I personally prefer investing in index funds (such as Vanguard’s VTSAX) but if trading motivates you to save more money, than go for it.
Do whatever motivates you to save more.
Step 3 – Open an HSA and max it out
Health Savings Account (HSA)
What is an HSA?
A Health Savings Account (or HSA) is another account I opened this year after reading the Mad Fientist’s post on using your HSA as a retirement account.
Essentially, you choose a high deductible health plan with your employer (one of the options for your health insurance) and then open a health savings account (HSA) which is another type of investment account.
The benefit of saving in an HSA is that your money goes in pre-tax, grows pre-tax, and then your money and your contributions are not taxed when you pull them out for qualified medical expenses.
What this means: Tax-free growth all around. Um, pretty freaking awesome!
You can maximize the growth by saving all of your medical receipts for years and letting compound interest do its thing.
Someday when you want the money, you can appear with all of your receipts (digitized of course) and take out the money tax free.
You can then use the money on whatever you want or need in retirement!
You can contribute $3,350 per year for singles and $6,750 for married couples and families.
I contribute the maximum each year to my HSA.
Step 4 – Open a High Interest Savings Account
You probably already have a savings account. What you may not have is a high interest savings account.
A high interest savings account is just a savings account that pays you a higher interest rate.
1% is probably the best rate you’re going to get for a high interest savings account right now.
Many people use their high interest savings account as an emergency fund and that is what I plan to do.
I’m currently depositing all income from my side hustles into my online savings account.
Step 5 – Participate in the Employee Stock Purchase Plan
What is an ESPP?
Your employer may allow you to put a certain percentage of your paycheck towards an Employee Stock Purchase Plan (or ESPP).
Typically, you can purchase your employer’s stock at a discount with all of the money you have contributed on one of two dates in a six month time frame. You then purchase on whatever day the price is lower and thus more favorable to you.
Every employer has a different plan but typically it’s the first and last day of the six month time frame.
What this means: It’s free money. Woohoo!
It’s a sweet deal because not only are you getting your employer’s stock at a discount (so if it’s discounted 15% you make 15% automatically that day) but you may also get the lower price between the two days (meaning if the stock was super low the opening day and went way up on the last day, you’ll make a much greater than 15% return).
These plans are typically advantageous ONLY if you sell your stock the first day you are able to. You may be tempted to chance it and hold on to your stock longer but you don’t know what will happen in the market.
I’m not an investment advisor but I plan to sell as soon as my stock vests.
Step 6 – Increase Your Savings Rate
Save 50% of your income
And now to the kicker. None of this information matters if you have no money to save.
Aim to save at least 50% of your income. The financial wizards recommend it.
You can do it!
Here are the 5 top ways I’m increasing my income and cutting costs to save more money.
- I sold my car which cut my car payment from $380/month to zero.
- I took a higher paying job and negotiated my salary.
- I paid off my debt.
- I stopped buying stuff I didn’t need and sold $4,500 worth of stuff on Craigslist.
- I use a TV antenna from Amazon instead of paying for cable.
Step 7 – Track Your Progress
Track Net Worth
Saving money isn’t easy but it feels pretty good to see your net worth go up.
I use Personal Capital’s free net worth tool to track my net worth.
Where do you invest? Do you think it’s boring to become a millionaire this way?
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